The VeSpR sounding rocket payload, returning from a successful flight over White Sands Missile Range in the Fall of 2013. Professor Clarke led the mission with PhD student Carol Carveth. VeSpR flew a far ultraviolet spectrograph to measure the Deuterium (heavy Hydrogen) to Hydrogen ratio of the top of the Venusian atmosphere. This ratio varies with altitude in the Venusian atmosphere, and learning about it where loss from the atmosphere happens is an important key in considering the total water loss history from the atmosphere. A better understanding of the water escape history on Venus will help us understand the evolution of the atmospheres of both Mars and Venus. This measurement could not have been made from a telescope on the ground because the far ultraviolet light from Venus cannot penetrate the Earth’s atmosphere. (Photo Courtesy Prof. Clarke)